The scientific name for killer whales is Orcinus orca.
“Orcas” and “killer whales” both refer to the same species of marine mammals. “Orcas” is a more commonly used term, while “killer whales” is another common name for the same species.
Orcas were given the name ‘killer whale” by ancient sailors’ observations of groups of orcas hunting and feeding on other animals, such as whales and seals.
The Latin name of the Orca, Orcinus orca, also reflects this observation of orcas feeding on large whales.
In modern times, many conservationists and scientists prefer to use the name “Orca” to refer to these animals, as it is a more accurate reflection of their true taxonomic classification and helps avoid misunderstandings about their behaviour.
Killer whales belong to the family Delphinidae, which is commonly referred to as the oceanic dolphin family. This family includes various species of dolphins, including the killer whale, making them a type of dolphin, despite their distinct appearance and size.
Killer whales are found in all oceans of the world, from the Arctic to the Antarctic.
They are incredibly adaptable and can thrive in a wide range of environments.
They can be found in both cold and warm waters, although they prefer cooler waters and often migrate seasonally to find food.
Orcas are highly intelligent animals with complex communication systems.
Their brains are four times larger than those of humans, making them one of the smartest animals on Earth
They use a combination of clicks, whistles, pulses, and body movements to communicate with each other. Killer whales are also highly social animals that live in complex societies with their own social hierarchies.
Orcas live in tight-knit family groups called pods. These pods are typically led by a matriarch, the oldest and most experienced female.
The bonds within pods are strong, and they work together to protect their young, hunt, and socialize.
Each pod (group) of killer whales has its own unique vocal language, allowing them to communicate with each other. They have been observed displaying cultural behaviours passed down from generation to generation, such as teaching youngsters how to hunt and play.
Orcas have been observed exhibiting playful behaviour, such as breaching (jumping out of the water) and slapping their tails on the surface. Adult Orcas males can grow up to 9.7 meters long and weigh up to 5,400 kilograms.
Female killer whales are generally smaller than males, reaching lengths of up to 8.5 meters and weighing around 3,600 kilograms. Orcas have distinctive black and white colouring, along with their distinctive body shape which helps them blend in with their surroundings and ambush prey.
Orcas are apex predators, meaning they are at the top of the marine food chain and have no natural predators in the wild. They have been known to hunt and consume a wide variety of prey, including fish, squid, seals, sea lions, walruses, and even other whale species. The also consume animals like dolphins, sharks and rays, seabirds and more.
Killer whales have excellent vision both above and below the water’s surface. Killer whales have excellent eyesight and can spot prey from far away.
It is generally believed that killer whales can spot prey from a depth of up to about 15 meters below the surface in clear water depending on water conditions, including water clarity and the presence of underwater obstacles.
They also possess exceptional hearing and can detect sounds at frequencies beyond human range. Killer whales are powerful and agile swimmers, swimming at speeds of up to 56 kilometers per hour.
They use echolocation to navigate and locate prey in dark or murky waters. Echolocation in killer whales is a biological system where they emit sounds to locate and identify objects or prey underwater by interpreting the returning echoes.
On average, they can hold their breath for about 5 to 10 minutes when they are actively swimming or hunting. Although relatively rare, they are capable of staying submerged for longer periods if needed. In some cases, they have been known to hold their breath for up to 20 minutes or more, but that’s often associated with specific hunting or foraging behaviours.
Orcas have a unique way of sleeping, in which only half of their brain is asleep at a time, allowing them to remain alert for potential threats. Orcas have to remain conscious, while they are sleeping. This is because their breathing is not automatic like humans, they have to actively decide when to breath, and so they must be conscious even when sleeping.
They are known for their iconic breaching behaviour, where they jump out of the water and land with a splash.
Scientists believe this breaching behaviour may be used for mating, communication, or simply for fun.
A baby killer whale (called a calf) will stay with its mother for several years before becoming independent. Female killer whales typically give birth every three to five years, resulting in a population growth rate of approximately 2-5% annually. This can vary depending on factors like food availability and environmental conditions.
Males usually live between ages 30-50, while females can live up to 80-90 years in the wild. In captivity, killer whales have been known to live into their sixties.
In captivity, killer whales have been known to recognize
themselves in mirrors, indicating self-awareness.
Killer whales are important keystone species, playing a vital role in maintaining marine ecosystem balance. They help regulate populations of other marine mammals and keep ocean environments healthy.
Killer whales are vulnerable to various human activities, such as overhunting, declining prey populations, habitat destruction, and pollution.
Entanglement in fishing nets and collisions with ships pose significant risks to killer whales. Killer whales have been known to exhibit aggressive behaviour towards boats and other human-made objects.
Climate change affects their habitats and prey distribution, further threatening their survival. Researchers study killer whales using techniques like satellite tracking, acoustic monitoring, and photo identification.